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Geetha Reddy Mla Bibliography

J. Geeta Reddy
Minister for Major Industries, Sugar, Commerce and Export Promotion, Government of Andhra Pradesh
In office
September 2009 - 2014
Personal details
Born1947 (age 70–71)
Hyderabad State
Political partyIndian National Congress
Spouse(s)Dr. Ramachandra Reddy
ChildrenMeghana Reddy
ResidenceHyderabad
Occupationgynaecologist

Dr. Jetti Geeta Reddy[a] (born 1947) is an Indian politician of the Indian National Congress (INC) party. Since 2014, she has been a member of the Telangana Legislative Assembly, in which she represents Zahirabad constituency in Medak district.

Reddy has been a minister in the cabinets of various governments. She was also leader of the INC in the legislative assembly during the government of Konijeti Rosaiah.

Early life[edit]

Geeta Reddy is the daughter of Eshwari Bai,[1] a former Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) and President of the Republican Party of India. She studied medicine at Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad and became a Member of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, London in 1989.[citation needed]

Career[edit]

Reddy worked as a gynaecologist. She lived in Australia from 1971 to 1977, in London from 1977 to 1980 and in Saudi Arabia from 1980 to 1982. She then returned to India.

Political career[edit]

Reddy and her husband, Ramachandra Reddy, established a medical practice in Saudi Arabia. In 1985, upon the request of Rajiv Gandhi, the couple returned to India so that Geeta could work on behalf of the Indian National Congress party.[citation needed] She contested elections for the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly in 1989 and became MLA for Gajwel in Medak district. She won that constituency again in 1999 and 2004.[2]

In the 2009 elections, Reddy was parachuted into the Zahirabad constituency, which had elected INC candidates in every election bar one since 1957. Converted to a seat reserved for candidates from the Scheduled Castes,[3] the constituency had been held for a decade by the INC's Mohammed Fareeduddin, who commanded much local respect but was forced by this decision to contest the election elsewhere and lost. She won the seat and did so again in 2014, despite allegations that Fareeduddin had been encouraging his local supporters to vote for any party except the INC.[4] On this occasion, the election was for a seat in the newly created Telangana Legislative Assembly that was created as part of the bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh.

Reddy was a minister in the cabinets of Marri Chenna Reddy, Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy and Y. S. Rajasekhar Reddy.[citation needed] She was INC leader in the legislative assembly during the Rosaiah government.[5]

Portfolios held[edit]

  • 1989-1994: Minister for Tourism, Culture, Social Welfare, Sports, Secondary Education and Protocol.
  • 1995-1998: General Secretary, Pradesh Congress Committee (PCC)
  • 1998-2000: Executive Member of PCC
  • 2000-2004: President, Andhra Pradesh Mahila Congress Committee.
  • 2004-2009: Minister for Tourism, Sugar and Major Industries commerce and Export promotion.
  • 2009–2010: Minister for Information and Public relations, Tourism, Culture, FDC, Archaeology, Museums & Archives, Cinematography.
  • 2010–2014: Minister for Major Industries, Sugar, Commerce and Export promotion

Reddy was also for some time around 2013 in charge of the Home department in the Andhra Pradesh government whilst also holding the Major Industries portfolio.[6] In the same year, the Telugu Desam Party had demanded that she be dismissed as a minister due to her being one of the co-accused named by the Central Bureau of Investigation in its work on a case relating to alleged illegal assets held by Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy.[7] The matter was dropped, with one of her co-accused, Mopidevi Venkataramana Rao, claiming that the Chief Minister, Kiran Kumar Reddy, had intervened.[8]

In April 2016, Reddy was appointed as chairman of the Telangana Legislative Assembly's Public Accounts Committee.[9]

Personal life[edit]

J. Geeta Reddy is married to Dr. Ramachandra Reddy.[10] Her husband owns Geetha Multi Speciality Hospital Secunderabad, Eashwari Bai Memorial Center Hospital, Eashwari Bai School Of Nursing and Eashwari Bai College Of Nursing.[citation needed] She has a daughter.[4]

Around 1980, after Reddy's husband had suffered a stroke and was not responding well to conventional medicine, the couple visited Sathya Sai Baba. She has expressed admiration for him, noting that her husband's health began to improve soon after the meeting,[10] and has been described as a devotee.[11]

Sports[edit]

  • President of Andhra Pradesh Women's Cricket Association

Social service[edit]

  • Vice President Indian Red Cross Society, Andhra Pradesh
  • Branch, Life Trustee, Indian Council of Child Welfare
  • Chairperson, Eashwari Bai Memorial Trust.
  • Former member of Central Social Welfare Board.
  • Former Senate member of Osmania University.

Awards[edit]

  • Mahila Shiromani
  • Unity award for National Integration Forum
  • 2008: Indira Gandhi Sadbhavana Award
  • 2008: Millennium Star Award
  • 2014: ALL Ladies League, Hyderabad Women of the Decade Achievers Award for Excellence in Public Administration[12]

References[edit]

Notes

Citations

  1. ^Her name is also spelled as Gita and Geetha

1. Hyderabad State – Hyderabad State, also known as Hyderabad Deccan, was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad. It is now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka, the state was ruled from 1724 until 1948 by a hereditary Nizam who was initially a Mughal governor of the Deccan before becoming independent. Hyderabad gradually became the first princely state to come under British paramountcy signing an alliance agreement. However, with the rise of militant razakars, India found it necessary to station Indian troops, subsequently, the Nizam signed an instrument of accession, joining India. Hyderabad State was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan who was the governor of Deccan under the Mughals from 1713 to 1721, in 1724, he once again resumed rule under the title of Asaf Jah. His other title Nizam ul-Mulk, became the title of his position Nizam of Hyderabad, by the end of his rule, the Nizam had become independent from the Mughals, and had founded the Asaf Jahi dynasty. Following the decline of the Mughal power, the region of Deccan saw the rise of Maratha Empire, the Nizam himself saw many invasions by the Marathas in the 1720s, which resulted in the Nizam paying a regular tax to the Marathas. The major battles fought between the Marathas and the Nizam include Palkhed, Rakshasbhuvan, and Kharda, in all of which the Nizam lost. Following the conquest of Deccan by Bajirao I and the imposition of chauth by him, Nizam remained a tributary of the Marathas for all intent, from 1778, a British resident and soldiers were installed in his dominions. In 1795, the Nizam lost some of his own territories to the Marathas, the territorial gains of the Nizam from Mysore as an ally of the British were ceded to the British to meet the cost of maintaining the British soldiers. In 1798, Nizam ʿĀlī Khan was forced to enter into an agreement which put Hyderabad under British protection and he was the first Indian prince to do so. Hyderabad under Nizam Ali Khan was a British ally in the second and third Maratha Wars, by 1918 Nizam Mīr Us̄mān ʿĀlī was given British titles, but the Crown retained the right to intervene in case of misrule. Hyderabad was considered backward, but peaceful, during this time, hyderabad’s Muslim nizams ruled over a predominantly Hindu population. The last Nizam, Osman Ali Khan, was one of the worlds richest men in the 1930s. In 1947 India gained independence and Pakistan came into existence, the British left the rulers of the princely states the choice of whether to join one or the other. On 11 June 1947, the Nizam issued a declaration to the effect that he had decided not to participate in the Constituent Assembly of either Pakistan or India, India insisted that the great majority of residents wanted to join India. The Nizam was in a position as his army numbered only 24,000 men. On 4 September the Prime Minister of Hyderabad Mir Laiq Ali announced to the Hyderabad Assembly that a delegation was about to leave for Lake Success, headed by Moin Nawaz Jung

2. India – India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is also traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety

3. Republican Party of India – The Republican Party of India is a political party in India. It has its roots in the Scheduled Castes Federation led by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, the Training School for Entrance to Politics was established by Dr. Ambedkar in 1956 which was to serve as an entry point to the Republican Party of India. The first batch of the school consisted of 15 students and its first batch turned out to be last batch as the school was closed after Dr. Ambedkars demise in 1956. During the recent years RPI suffered severe internal strife, several distinct parties claim the name of RPI. There are more than 50 factions of RPI, in 2009, all factions of RPI except Prakash Ambedkars Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangha reunited to form a united Republican Party of India. Later, Republican Party of India split again from the united party, splinter groups of RPI include, Republican Party of India of Unity, No Group No Members only Jay Bhim Republican Party of India of Ramdas Athvale Republican Party of India of R. S. Kamble Republican Party of India of B. C, kamble Republican Party of India of B. D. Khobragade Republican Party of India Indian Republican Party of Namdeo Dhasal Republican Party of India. Renowned Institution Builder Ashok Bharti has initiated revival of Republican Party of India in several parts of the country, state Units have been constituted in several states, including Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Chandigarh. Details of all Office bearers would soon be available on its official website, RPI. ORG. In Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Independent Labour Party Scheduled Castes Federation

4. Caste system in India – The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste. It has origins in ancient India, and was transformed by various ruling elites in medieval, early-modern, and, modern India, especially the Mughal Empire and it is today the basis of educational and job reservations in India. It consists of two different concepts, varna and jati, which may be regarded as different levels of analysis of this system. The caste system as it today is thought to be the result of developments during the collapse of the Mughal era. The British Raj furthered this development, making rigid caste organisation a central mechanism of administration, between 1860 and 1920, the British segregated Indians by caste, granting administrative jobs and senior appointments only to the upper castes. Social unrest during the 1920s led to a change in this policy, from then on, the colonial administration began a policy of positive discrimination by reserving a certain percentage of government jobs for the lower castes. Caste-based differences have also been practised in regions and religions in the Indian subcontinent like Nepalese Buddhism, Christianity, Islam. It has been challenged by many reformist Hindu movements, Islam, Sikhism, Christianity, new developments took place after India achieved independence, when the policy of caste-based reservation of jobs was formalised with lists of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Since 1950, the country has enacted laws and social initiatives to protect. Discrimination against lower castes is illegal in India under Article 15 of its constitution, Varna literally means colour, and was a framework for grouping people into classes, first used in Vedic Indian society. It is referred to frequently in the ancient Indian texts, the four classes were the Brahmins, the Kshatriyas, the Vaishyas, and Shudras. The varna categorisation implicitly had an element, being those people deemed to be entirely outside its scope, such as tribal people. Jati, meaning birth, is mentioned less often in ancient texts. There are four varnas but thousands of jatis, the jatis are complex social groups that lack universally applicable definition or characteristic, and have been more flexible and diverse than was previously often assumed. This view has been disputed by scholars, who believe it to be a secular social phenomenon driven by the necessities of economics, politics. Jatis have existed in India among Hindus, Muslims, Christians and tribal people, the term caste is not an Indian word. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it is derived from the Portuguese casta, meaning race, lineage, breed and, originally, There is no exact translation in Indian languages, but varna and jati are the two most proximate terms. The sociologist G. S. Ghurye wrote in 1932 that, despite much study by many people and it appears to me that any attempt at definition is bound to fail because of the complexity of the phenomenon

5. Secunderabad – Secunderabad, popularly known as the twin city of Hyderabad is located in the Indian state of Telangana. Named after Sikandar Jah, the third Nizam of the Asaf Jahi dynasty, geographically divided from Hyderabad by the Hussain Sagar lake, Secunderabad is no longer a separate municipal unit and has become part of Hyderabads GHMC municipality. Both cities are known as Hyderabad and together form the sixth largest metropolis in India. Being one of the largest cantonments in India, Secunderabad has a presence of army. The present area around Secunderabad was ruled by the Chalukya dynasty from 624 CE to 1075 CE, area around Secunderbad changed hands between various rulers and by the 18th century, the area was part of Nizams Hyderabad. Modern Secunderabad was founded as a British cantonment after the Nizam Asaf Jah II was defeated at the hands of the British East India Company, later, in 1803, Nizam Sikandar Jah, the third Nizam of Hyderabad, renamed Ulwul as Secunderabad after himself. The city was formed in 1806, after the order was signed by the Nizam allotting the land north of Hussain Sagar to set up the British Cantonment. The twin cities are separated by the man-made Hussain Sagar lake, unlike Hyderabad, the official language of Secunderabad was English. Secunderabad was exempted from duty on imported goods thus making trade very profitable. Various new markets such as Regimental Bazaar and General Bazaar were created, after the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, the construction of a seven metre high wall was started at Trimulgherry and completed in 1867. Secunderabad Railway Station one of the largest in India which is also the headquarters of South Central Railway was established in 1874. The King Edward Memorial Hospital, now known as Gandhi Hospital was established in 1851, a Civil Jail was also established. Originally constructed in 1860 as the house of the British Resident at Hyderabad, the Residency House is now known as the Rashtrapati Nilayam. Sir Winston Churchill, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during World War II, was posted in Secunderabad during the 1890s as a subaltern in the British Army, Sir Ronald Ross conducted his initial research on the cause of malaria in the city of Secunderabad. The original building is called the Sir Ronald Ross Institute and is located on Minister Road. Secunderabad Municipality was first formed in 1945, later in 1950, along with Hyderabad Municipality, it was upgraded to Secunderabad Municipal Corporation under the Hyderabad Corporation Act,1950. In 1960 by the Hyderabad Municipal Corporation Act 1955, Secunderabad Municipal Corporation was merged with Hyderabad Corporation to form a single Municipal Corporation, today Secunderabad is part of the Hyderabad district. Secunderabad celebrated two hundred years of its formation in 2006, post-Independence, the Secunderabad Cantonment Board came under the jurisdiction of the Indian Armed forces

6. B. R. Ambedkar – He was Independent Indias first law minister and the principal architect of the Constitution of India. In his early career he was an economist, professor, in 1956 he converted to Buddhism, initiating mass conversions of Dalits. In 1990, the Bharat Ratna, Indias highest civilian award, was conferred upon Ambedkar. Ambedkars legacy includes numerous memorials and depictions in popular culture, Ambedkar was born on 14 April 1891 in the town and military cantonment of Mhow in the Central Provinces. He was the 14th and last child of Ramji Maloji Sakpal, an officer who held the rank of Subedar. His family was of Marathi background from the town of Ambavade in Ratnagiri district of modern-day Maharashtra, Ambedkar was born into a poor low Mahar caste, who were treated as untouchables and subjected to socio-economic discrimination. Ambedkars ancestors had long worked for the army of the British East India Company, although they attended school, Ambedkar and other untouchable children were segregated and given little attention or help by teachers. They were not allowed to sit inside the class, when they needed to drink water, someone from a higher caste had to pour that water from a height as they were not allowed to touch either the water or the vessel that contained it. He was required to sit on a sack which he had to take home with him. Ramji Sakpal retired in 1894 and the moved to Satara two years later. Shortly after their move, Ambedkars mother died, the children were cared for by their paternal aunt and lived in difficult circumstances. Three sons – Balaram, Anandrao and Bhimrao – and two daughters – Manjula and Tulasa – of the Ambedkars survived them, of his brothers and sisters, only Ambedkar passed his examinations and went to high school. His original surname Ambavadekar comes from his native village Ambavade in Ratnagiri district and his teacher, Mahadev Ambedkar, who was fond of him, changed his surname from Ambavadekar to his own surname Ambedkar in school records. In 1897, Ambedkars family moved to Bombay where Ambedkar became the only untouchable enrolled at Elphinstone High School, in 1906, when he was about 15 years old, his marriage to a nine-year-old girl, Ramabai, was arranged. In 1907, he passed his examination and in the following year he entered Elphinstone College. This success evoked much celebration among untouchables and after a ceremony, he was presented with a biography of the Buddha by Dada Keluskar, the author. By 1912, he obtained his degree in economics and political science from Bombay University and his wife had just moved his young family and started work when he had to quickly return to Mumbai to see his ailing father, who died on 2 February 1913. In 1913, Ambedkar moved to the United States at the age of 22, soon after arriving there he settled in rooms at Livingston Hall with Naval Bhathena, a Parsi who was to be a lifelong friend

7. Indian Red Cross Society – The Indian Red Cross Society is a voluntary humanitarian organisation to protect human life and health based in India. It is part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, the societys mission is providing relief in times of disasters/emergencies and promoting health & care of vulnerable people and communities. It has a network of over 700 branches throughout India, the Society uses the Red Cross as an emblem in common with other international Red Cross societies. Volunteering has been at the heart of the Indian Red Cross Society since its inception in 1920, with the Society having Youth. The Society is closely associated with the St John Ambulance in India, on 3 March 1920 a bill was introduced to the Indian Legislative Council by Sir Claude Hill to constitute the Indian Red Cross Society, independent of the British Red Cross. The Bill was passed as the Indian Red Cross Society Act,1920 on 17 March 1920, on 7 June 1920 fifty members were formally nominated to constitute the Indian Red Cross Society from members of the Indian branch of the Joint War Committee. The first Managing Body was elected from among them with Sir William Malcolm Hailey as Chairman, poW parcels, supplied by the Indian Red Cross Society during WW2 contained, In 1947 some of the IRCS assets were provided to found the Pakistan Red Crescent Society. The act governing the IRCS was last amended by The Indian Red Cross Society Bill,1992, the IRCS has 35 State / Union Territories Branches with their more than 700 districts and sub district branches. The President of India is the President of the IRCS The Minister of Health, the National Managing Body consists of 19 members. The Chairman and 6 members of the body are nominated by the President. The remaining 12 are elected by the state and union territory branches through an electoral college, the Vice Chairman is elected by the members of the Managing Body. The Managing Body is responsible for governance and supervision of the functions of the society through a number of committees, the Secretary General is the Chief Executive of the Society. International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement Emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement Indian Red Cross Society official website - http, //www. indianredcross. org/

8. Telangana movement – The Telangana Movement refers to a peoples movement for the creation of a new state, Telangana, from the preexisting state of Andhra Pradesh in India. The new state corresponds to the Telugu-speaking portions of the princely state of Hyderabad. Lasting for almost a decade, this has one of the most longlasting movements in South India. On 18 February 2014, the Lok Sabha passed the bill with a voice vote, subsequently, the bill was passed by Rajya Sabha 2 days later, on 20 February. As per the bill, Hyderabad will be the capital of Telangana, on 2 June 2014, Telangana was created. In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission was appointed to prepare for the creation of states on linguistic line, the commission, due to public demand, recommended disintegration of Hyderabad State and to merge Marathi speaking region with Bombay state and Kannada speaking region with Mysore state. The States Reorganisation Commission discussed pros and cons of the merger of Telugu speaking Telangana region of Hyderabad state with Andhra state, in its final analysis SRC recommended against the immediate merger. Telangana was the largest of the three regions of Andhra Pradesh state, covering 41. 47% of its total area and it is inhabited by 40. 54% of the states population. This has caused a lot of confusion in region-wise income distribution, also, after the bifurcation, companies will pay their portion of taxes to Telangana or present day Andhra Pradesh depending on where they operate. Proponents of a separate Telangana state cite perceived injustices in the distribution of water, budget allocations, within the state of Andhra Pradesh,68. Telangana and non coastal parts of Karnataka and Maharashtra states form Deccan Plateau, Telangana supporters state that 74. 25% of irrigation water through the canal system under major irrigation projects goes to the Coastal Andhra region, while Telangana gets 18. 20%. The remaining 7. 55% goes to the Rayalaseema region and we are of the opinion that this area should not be deprived of the benefit of irrigation on account of the reorganisation of States. The share of funding for Telangana ranges from 9. 86% in government-aided primary schools to 37. 85% in government degree colleges. The above numbers include the expenditure in Hyderabad, budget allocations to Telangana are generally less than 1/3 of the total Andhra Pradesh budget. There are allegations that in most years, funds allocated to Telangana were never spent, since 1956, Andhra Pradesh government established 11 new medical colleges in the state. 8 were in Seemandhra and only 3 were in Telangana, Telangana was not compensated for lost opportunities because of inward migration of lot of students into Hyderabad from Seemandhra. As per Srikrishna committee on Telangana, Telangana held the position of CM for 10.5 years while Seema-Andhra region held it for 42 years. According to the Backward Regions Grant Fund 2009–10,13 backward districts are located in Andhra Pradesh, nine are from Telangana and they allege that the experiment to remain as one state has proven to be a futile exercise and that separation is the best solution

9. Pune – Pune is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra and the ninth most populous city in the country. In the 18th century, Pune was the centre of the Indian subcontinent. Considered to be the capital of Maharashtra, Pune is known as Oxford of the East due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions in the city. The city has emerged as an educational hub in recent decades. Since the 1950s and 1960s, Pune has had a traditional old-economic base as most of the old industries continue to grow, a few college in the Europe have also actively engaged in Student-exchange programs with several colleges in Pune. Pune is also one of the fastest growing cities in the Asia-Pacific region, the ‘Mercer 2015 Quality of Living rankings’ evaluated local living conditions in more than 440 cities around the world where Pune ranked at 145, second in India after Hyderabad. It also highlights Pune among evolving business centres and emerging nine cities around the world with citation Hosts IT, the oldest reference to the place is found inscribed on a Rashtrakuta Dynasty copper plate dated AD937, which refers to the town as Punya-Vishaya meaning Sacred News. By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Punawadi, copper plates dated 858 AD and 868 AD show that by the 8th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed where Pune is today. The plates indicate that this region was ruled by the Rashtrakuta dynasty, the Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era. Pune was part of the territory ruled by Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327, in 1595, Maloji Raje Bhosale was granted the jagirdari of Pune by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate. Pune was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate until it was annexed by the Mughals in the 17th century, Pune was part of the Jagir granted to Maloji Bhosale in 1599 for his services to the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar. His grandson, Shivaji, the founder of Maratha Empire, was born in Shivneri fort not far from Pune, Shivaji was brought up by his mother in Pune. Pune changed hands several times between the Mughals and the Marathas in the period between 1660 and 1705 and he stabilised the revenue collection and administrative systems of areas around Pune and in neighbouring area of the Maval region. In addition, he developed methods to manage disputes and to enforce law. Construction on the Lal Mahal began in 1631 AD, the Lal Mahal was completed in 1640 AD. Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple, the Ganesha idol consecrated at this temple has been regarded as the presiding deity of the city. Shivaji encouraged the development of dams in the Parvati and Kondhwa regions of Pune for agricultural purposes, Pune and its surrounding villages were the major recruitment areas for Shivajis army between 1645 AD and 1680 AD. Between 1660 AD and 1670 AD the town was captured by Mughal General Shahista Khan, Shivaji often used Pune as his transit base during his major campaigns such as Varhad-Karanja, AhemadaNagar District, Karnataka, and Jalna

10. Indian National Congress – The Indian National Congress is one of two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. Congress was founded in 1885 during the British Raj, its founders include Allan Octavian Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji, there have been seven Congress Prime Ministers, the first being Jawaharlal Nehru, and the most recent Manmohan Singh. The partys social liberal platform is considered to be on the centre-left of Indian politics. From 2004 to 2014, the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance, a coalition of regional parties. As of March 2017, the party is in power in five states, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Meghalaya, in Bihar, it is a part of the ruling coalition. The Congress has previously directly ruled Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, in the 2014 general election, the Congress had its poorest post-independence general election performance, winning only 44 seats of the 543-member house. The party primarily endorses social liberalism—seeking to balance individual liberty and social justice, the Congress was founded in 1885 by Indian and British members of the Theosophical Society movement, including Scotsman Allan Octavian Hume. It has been suggested that the idea was conceived in a meeting of 17 men after a Theosophical Convention held in Madras in December 1884. Hume took the initiative, and in March 1885 the first notice convening the first Indian National Union to meet in Poona the following December was issued. Its objective was to obtain a share in government for educated Indians and to create a platform for civic. The first meeting was scheduled to be held in Poona, Hume organised the first meeting in Bombay with the approval of the Viceroy Lord Dufferin. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first president of the Congress, the first session was held from 28–31 December 1885, representing each province of India, the Partys delegates comprised 54 Hindus and 2 Muslims, the rest were of Parsi and Jain backgrounds. It also included Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Mohammed Ali Jinnah—later leader of the Muslim League and instrumental in the creation of Pakistan. The Congress was transformed into a movement by Surendranath Banerjea and Sir Henry Cotton during the partition of Bengal in 1905. Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1915, in 1923 following the deaths of policemen at Chauri Chaura, Gandhi suspended the agitation. In protest, a number of leaders, Chittaranjan Das, Annie Besant, the Khilafat movement collapsed and the Congress was split. Although its members were predominantly Hindu, it had members from other religions, economic classes, at the Congress 1929 Lahore session under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, Purna Swaraj was declared as the partys goal, declaring 26 January 1930 as Purna Swaraj Diwas, Independence Day. The same year, Srinivas Iyenger was expelled from the party for demanding full independence, the British government allowed provincial elections in India in the winter of 1936–37 under the Government of India Act 1935

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