Nyc Subway Train Assignments For Students
While the sight of an 18-ton subway car being dumped into the Atlantic Ocean may appear like an ecological disaster, it is quite the opposite. Instead of harming marine life, the sturdy steel structures submerged deep into the Atlantic Ocean transform into perfect artificial reefs that provide comfortable homes for all kinds of sea creatures.
The idea of the unusual disposal method was inspired by the State of Delaware's artificial reef program. Started in 1995, it entailed sinking decommissioned tankers, naval ships and tugboats to the bottom of the Atlantic. According to officials, the program was necessary because of the loose sand and silt that make it impossible for natural reefs to form.
In 2001 when the New York Metropolitan Transit Department (MTA) retired a fleet of 619 "Redbird" subway cars, they offered them to East Coast States that wished to start a similar program. According to Mike Zacchea, the Assistant Chief Operations Officer at MTA, the decision was driven largely by the cost of recycling the large number of cars. He said that the cost of removing the asbestos from the chassis would have cost the department between $12,000 to 65,000 USD for each of the cars. In contrast, transporting and dumping them set the transit department back by a mere $8,000 USD.
The State of Delaware received most of the subway cars simply because the other states were not sure of their use as an artificial reef. That, of course, changed once they saw the success of the state's "Redbird Reef" project. By the time the MTA ended its subway replacement project in 2010, over 2,500 retired subway cars, had found a new home all the way from Delaware to Georgia. Together they form 15 underwater reefs that support the life of numerous fish and crustaceans.
Prepping for what Delaware's reef program manager Jeff Tinsman calls "luxury condominiums for fish," did take some time. While the small amount of asbestos in the subway cars was considered safe underwater, pollutants like oil had to be removed. In addition, the cars were also stripped of the seats, straps, and wheels that are either recycled or sold. Only after the structures met the strict guidelines of the US. Environmental Protection Agency were they allowed to be dumped into the ocean.
The artificial reefs are still constantly monitored and studied to ensure they don't pose any threat to the underwater sea life. Thus far, numerous sea creatures have successfully converted the carbon steel subway cars into their new homes. In many instances, the metal surfaces are covered in algae, making them almost unrecognizable.
In addition to shelter, the reefs provide 400 times as much food per square foot as the natural sand bottom. The dual role that the reefs play is particularly beneficial to fish such as black sea bass, which are not fast swimmers and need help escaping from sharks and other predators. An added benefit is the economic boost it provides the various states thanks to the increase in recreational activities like scuba diving.
While the success of this unusual project has been known to a few, it has recently garnered public attention thanks to Stephen Mallon, a photographer who has followed the recycling efforts for many years. His recently held exhibition entitled "Patterns of Interest" vividly depicts a three-year journey of subway cars from carbon steel structures to robust marine abodes.
Though the subway cars program came to an end in 2010, when the MTA stopped donating, some states have continued the program using other safe manmade structures like retired Navy tankers.
Resources: savannahnow.com, zmescience.com, cnn.com.,dnrecdelaware.gov
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Except as expressly permitted in this subdivision, no person shall engage in any nontransit uses upon any facility or conveyance. Nontransit uses are noncommercial activities that are not directly related to the use of a facility or conveyance for transportation. The following nontransit uses are permitted by the Authority, provided they do not impede transit activities and they are conducted in accordance with these rules: public speaking; campaigning; leafletting or distribution of written noncommercial materials; activities intended to encourage and facilitate voter registration; artistic performances, including the acceptance of donations; solicitation for religious or political causes; solicitation for charities that: (1) have been licensed for any public solicitation within the preceding 12 months by the Commissioner of Social Services of the City of New York under section 21-111 of the Administrative Code of the City of New York or any successor provision; (2) are duly registered as charitable organizations with the Attorney General of New York under section 172 of the New York Executive Law or any successor provision; or, (3) are exempt from Federal income tax under section 501(c)(3) of the United States Internal Revenue Code or any successor provision. Solicitors for such charities shall provide, upon request, evidence that such charity meets one of the preceding qualifications.
(1) Permitted nontransit uses may be conducted in the transit system except: (A) when on or within: a subway car; an omnibus; or, any area not generally open to the public; (B) within a distance of 25 feet of a station booth, or a fare media sales device including but not limited to a fare media vending machine; or, (C) within a distance of 50 feet from the marked entrance to an Authority office or tower. (D) The following activities are not subject to the minimum distance requirements as set forth in subparagraphs (B) and (C) of this paragraph: public speaking; leafletting or distribution of written noncommercial materials; campaigning; and, activities intended to encourage and facilitate voter registration, provided, that with respect to any of the activities described in this subparagraph, no sound production device is used and no physical obstruction, such as a table or other object, is present within a distance of 25 feet of a station booth or fare media sales device, or 50 feet from the marked entrance to an Authority office or tower.
(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, any activity in a location which interferes with the access onto or off of an escalator, stairway or elevator, or otherwise interferes with or impedes transit services or the movement of passengers, is prohibited.
(3) No activity permitted by the authorization contained in this section shall be conducted on a subway platform where construction, renovation or maintenance work is underway on or near the platform, or on or near the staircases, escalators, or elevators leading to such platform and including any such work in or near track areas.
(4) No activity is permitted which creates excessive noise or which emits noise that interferes with transit operations. The emission of any sound in excess of 85 dBA on the A weighted scale measured at five feet from the source of the sound or 70 dBA measured at two feet from a station booth is excessive noise and is prohibited. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the use on subway platforms of amplification devices of any kind, electronic or otherwise, is prohibited.
(5) No person shall use media devices such as films, slides or videotapes.
(6) Where an activity permitted by the authorization contained in this section includes the use of a sound production device, no person shall begin or continue the use of such sound production device during any announcement made over the public address system or by a New York City police officer or by an Authority employee.
(7) No person shall misrepresent through words, signs, leaflets, attire or otherwise such person's affiliation with or lack of affiliation with or support by any organization, group, entity or cause, including any affiliation with or support by the Authority or the Metropolitan Transportation Authority or any of their programs, such as Music Under New York or Arts for Transit.
(8) Any person using the transit system for nontransit activities permitted pursuant to this rule does so at his or her own risk, and the Authority assumes no liability by the grant of this authorization.